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Remme, R. P.,  H. Frumkin, A. D. Guerry1, A. C. King, L. Mandle, C. Sarabu, G. N. Bratman, B. Giles-Corti, P. Hamel1,, B. Han, J. L. Hicks, P. James, J. J. Lawler, T. Lindahl, H. Liu, Y. Lu, B. Oosterbroek, B. Paudel, J. F. Sallis, J. Schipperijn, R. Sosič, S. de Vries, B. W. Wheeler, S. A. Wood, T. Wu, G. C. Daily.  In Press. Nature and physical activity in cities: an ecosystem service perspective. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.


Canelles, Q., N. Aquilué, P. M. A. James, J. Lawler, and L. Brotons. 2021. Global review on interactions between insect pests and other forest disturbances. Landscape Ecology 36:945–972.

Cartwright, J. M., C. E. Littlefield, J. L. Michalak, J. J. Lawler, and S. Z. Dobrowski.  2020. Topographic, soil, and climate drivers of drought sensitivity in forests and shrublands of the Pacific Northwest, USA. Scientific Reports 10:18486.    (pdf)


Michalak, J. L., D. Stralberg, J. M. Cartwright, and J. J. Lawler.  2020.  Combining physical and species-based approaches improves refugia identification.  Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 18: 254-260.     (pdf)


Lawler, J. J. and C. E. Torgersen.  2020.  Assessing the relative importance of factors at multiple spatial scales affecting terrestrial and aquatic wildlife. Current Landscape Ecology Reports 5: 12-24,     (pdf)


Lawler, J. J., D. S. Rinnan, J. L. Michalak, J. C. Withey, C. R. Randels, H. P. Possingham.  2020. Planning for climate change through additions to a national protected area network: implications for cost and configuration. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 375: 20190117.     (pdf)


Carter, N., M. A. Williamson, S. Gilbert, S. A. Lischka, L. R. Prugh, J. J. Lawler, A. L. Metcalf, A. L. Jacob, B. J. Beltrán, A. J.  Castro, A. Sage, Abigail, and M. Burnham.  2020.  Integrated spatial analysis for human-wildlife coexistence in the American West.  Environmental Research Letters 15: 021001,     (pdf)

Rinnan, D. S. and J. J. Lawler.  2019. Climate-niche factor analysis: a spatial approach to quantifying species vulnerability to climate change. Ecography,      (pdf)

Littlefield, C., M. Krosby, J. L. Michalak, and J. J. Lawler.  2019.  Connectivity to address climate-driven range shifts.  Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 17: 270-278.     (pdf)


Bratman, G. N., C. B. Anderson, M. G. Berman, B. Cochran, S. de Vries, J. Flanders, C. Folke, H. Frumkin, J. J. Gross, T. Hartig, P. H. Kahn, M. Kuo, J. J. Lawler, P. S. Levin, T. Lindahl, A. Meyer-Lindenberg, R. Mitchell, Z. Ouyang, J. Roe, L. Scarlett, J. R. Smith, M. van den Bosch, B. W. Wheeler, M. P. White, H. Zheng, and G. C. Daily. 2019. Nature and mental health: An ecosystem service perspective. Science Advances 5:eaax0903–eaax0903.     (pdf)


Heinrichs, J. A., L. E. Walker, J. J. Lawler, N. H. Schumaker, K. C. Monroe, A. D. Bleisch.  2019.  Recent advances and current challenges in applying source-sink theory to species conservation.  Current Landscape Ecology Reports 4:51,     (pdf)


Heinrichs, J. A., J. J. Lawler, N. H. Schumaker, L. E. Walker, D. A. Cimprich, and A. Bleisch.  2019. Assessing source-sink stability in the context of management and land-use. Landscape Ecology 34: 259-274.     (pdf)


Schrodt, F.,  J. J. Bailey, W. D. Kissling, K. F. Rijsdijk, A. C. Seijmonsbergen, D. van Ree, J. Hjort, R. S. Lawley, C. N. Williams, M. G. Anderson, P. Beier, P. van Beukering, D. S. Boyd, J. Brilha, L. Carcavilla, K. M. Dahlin, J. C. Gill, J. E. Gordon, M. Gray, M. Grundy, M. L. Hunter, J. J. Lawler, M. Monge-Ganuzas, K. R. Royse, I. Stewart, S. Record, W. Turner, P. L. Zarnetske, and R. Field. 2019. To advance sustainable stewardship, we must document not only biodiversity but geodiversity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 116: 16155-16158.     (pdf)


Nogeire-McRae, T., J. J. Lawler, N. H. Schumaker, B. L. Cypher, and S. E. Phillips. 2019. Land use change and rodenticide exposure trump climate change as the biggest stressors to San Joaquin kit fox. PLoS ONE 14(6): e0214297.     (pdf)


Dickson, B., C. Albano, R. Anantharaman, P. Beier, J. Fargione, T. Graves, M. Gray, K. Hall, J. Lawler, P.  Leonard, C.  Littlefield, M. McClure, J. Novembre, C. Schloss, N. Schumaker, V. Shah, and D. Theobald.  2018.  Circuit theory applications to connectivity science and conservation. Conservation Biology 33: 239-249.     (pdf)


Littlefield, C., E. Nelson, B. Dittbrenner, J. Withey, K. Arkema, and J. Lawler.  2019.  Ecosystem-based adaptation. In: T. Lovejoy and L Hannah (eds.), Biodiversity and Climate Change, 2nd edition.     (pdf)


Lawler, J. J.  2019.  Anticipating climate-driven movement routes. In: T. Lovejoy and L Hannah (eds.), Biodiversity and Climate Change, 2nd edition.     

Michalak, J. L., J. J. Lawler, D. R. Roberts, C. Carroll. 2018. Distribution and protection of climatic refugia in North America. Conservation Biology 32: 1414-1425.     (pdf)

Molinos J. G., E. S. Poloczanska, J. D. Olden, J. J. Lawler, M. T. Burrows. 2018. Biogeographical Shifts and Climate Change. In: Dellasala, D. A., and M. I. Goldstein, editors. Encyclopedia of the Anthropocene. Oxford: Elsevier. p. 217-28.     (pdf)


Heinrichs, J. A., J. J. Lawler, and N. H. Schumaker.  2018. A multi-species test of source-sink indicators to prioritize habitat for declining populations. Conservation Biology 32: 648-659.     (pdf)


Fullerton, A. H., C. E. Torgersen, J. J. Lawler, E. A. Steel, J. L. Ebersole, and S. Y. Lee.  2018.  Longitudinal thermal heterogeneity in rivers and refugia for coldwater species: effects of scale and climate change.  Aquatic Sciences 80:3,     (pdf)


Fullerton, A. H., B. J. Burke, J. J. Lawler, C. E. Torgersen, J. L. Ebersole, and S. G. Leibowitz.  2017.  Simulated Juvenile salmon growth and phenology respond to altered thermal regimes and stream network shape. Ecosphere 8: e02052.  DOI:10.1002/ecs2.2052.     (pdf)


Lawler, J. and J. Michalak. 2017.  Planning for climate change without climate projections? In: P. Kareiva, B. Silliman, M. Marvier (eds.), Uncomfortable Questions and Confirmation Bias in Conservation.  Oxford University Press.     (pdf)

Michalak, J. L., J. C. Withey, J. J. Lawler, M. J. Case.  2017.  Navigating multiple lines of evidence to evaluate future climate vulnerability.  Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 15: 367-376.     (pdf)


Littlefield, C. E., B. H. McRae, J. Michalak, J. J. Lawler, and Carlos Carroll.  2017.  Connecting today’s climates to future analogs to facilitate species movement under climate change.  Conservation Biology 31: 1397-1408.     (pdf)


Carroll, C., D. R. Roberts, J. L. Michalak, J. J. Lawler, S. E. Nielsen, D. Stralberg, A. Hamann, B. H. McRae, and T. Wang.  2017.  Scale-dependent complementarity of climatic velocity and environmental diversity for identifying priority areas for conservation under climate change.  Global Change Biology 23: 4508-4520.     (pdf)

Nelson, E., J. Withey, D. Pennington, and J. Lawler. 2017.  Identifying the Impacts of Critical Habitat Designation on Land Cover Change. Resource and Energy Economics 47: 89-125.


Case, M. J. and J. J. Lawler.  2017.  Integrating mechanistic and empirical model projections to assess climate impacts on tree species distributions in northwestern North America.  Global Change Biology 23: 2005-2015.     (pdf)


Dempsey, J. A., A. J. Plantinga, J. D. Kline, J. J. Lawler, S. Martinuzzi, V. C. Radeloff, and D. P. Bigelow.  2017.  Effects of local land-use planning on development and disturbance in riparian areas.  Land Use Policy, 60: 16-25.     (pdf)

Bancroft, B., J. J. Lawler, N. H. Schumaker.  2016.  Weighing the relative potential impacts of climate change and land-use change on an endangered bird.  Ecology and Evolution 6: 4468-4477.     (pdf)


Case, M. J. and J. J. Lawler.  2016.  Relative vulnerability to climate change of trees in western North America.  Climatic Change 136: 367-397.     (pdf)


Heinrichs, J. A., J. J. Lawler. N. H. Schumaker.  2016.  Intrinsic and extrinsic drivers of source-sink dynamics. Ecology and Evolution 6: 892-904.     (pdf)


McGuire, J. L., J. J. Lawler, B. McRae, T. Nuñez, D. Theobald.  2016.  Achieving climate connectivity in a fragmented landscape.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 213: 7195-7200.    (pdf)  (SI)


Heinrichs, J. A., J. J. Lawler, N. H. Schumaker, C. Wilsey, and D. Bender.  2015.  Divergence in sink contributions to population persistence.  Conservation Biology 29: 1674–1683.     (pdf)


Lawler, J. J., J. E. M. Watson, E. T. Game.  2015. Conservation in the face of climate change: recent developments. F1000Research 2015, 4(F1000 Faculty Rev):1158 (doi: 10.12688/f1000research.6490.1).     (pdf)


Carroll, C., J. J. Lawler, D. R. Roberts, and A. Hamann.  2015.  Biotic and climatic velocity identify contrasting areas of vulnerability to climate change. PLoS ONE 10(10): e0140486. doi:10.1371/journal. pone.0140486.     (pdf)


Duggan, J. M., B. A. Eichelberger, S. Ma, J. J. Lawler, and G. Ziv.  2015.  Informing management of rare species with an approach combining scenario modeling and spatially explicit risk-assessment.  Ecosystem Health and Sustainability 1(6): 22.     (pdf)

Nogeire, T. M., J. J. Lawler, N. H. Schumaker, B. L. Cypher, and S. E. Phillips. 2015.  Land use as a driver of patterns of rodenticide exposure in modeled kit fox populations.  PLoS ONE 10(8): e0133351. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0133351.     (pdf)


Krosby, M., C. Wilsey, J. McGuire, T. Nogeire, J. Heinrichs, J. M. Duggan, J. Tewksbury, J. J. Lawler.  2015.  Climate-induced range overlap among closely related species.  Nature Climate Change 5: 883-886.     (pdf)


Fullerton, A. H., C. E. Torgersen, J. J. Lawler, R. N. Faux, E. A. Steel, T. J. Beechie, J. L. Ebersole, and S. G. Leibowitz.  2015.  Rethinking the longitudinal stream temperature paradigm: region-wide comparison of thermal infrared imagery reveals unexpected complexity of river temperatures. Hydrological Processes doi:10.1002/hyp.10506.     (pdf)


Langdon, J. G. R. and J. J. Lawler.  2015.  Assessing the threat of future climate change to the protected areas of western North America. Ecosphere 187: 127-133.     (pdf)

Anderson, M. G., P. J. Comer, P. Beier, J. J. Lawler, C. Schloss, S. Buttrick, C. Albano, and D. P. Faith. 2015.  Case studies of conservation plans that incorporate geodiversity.  Conservation Biology 29: 680-691.     (pdf)


Lawler, J. J., D. Ackerly, C. Albano, M. Anderson, M. Cross, S. Dobrowski, J. Gill, N. Heller, R. Pressey, E. Sanderson, and S. Weiss.  2015.  The theory behind, and challenges of, conserving nature’s stage in a time of rapid change. Conservation Biology 29: 618-629.     (pdf)

Torrubia, S., B. H. McRae, J. J. Lawler, S. A. Hall, M. Halabisky, J. Langdon, and M. Case.  2015. Getting the most connectivity per conservation dollar.  Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 12: 491-497.     (pdf)


Schmitz, O. J., J. J. Lawler, P. Beier, C. Groves, G. Knight, D. A. Boyce Jr., J. Bulluck, K. M. Johnston, M. L. Klein, K. Muller, D. J. Pierce, W. R. Singleton, J. R. Strittholt, D. M. Theobald, S. C. Trombulak, and A. Trainor.  2015.  Conserving biodiversity: practical guidance about climate change adaptation approaches in support of land-use planning.  Natural Areas Journal 35: 190-203.     (pdf)


Galitsky, C. and J. J. Lawler.  2015.  Relative influence of local and landscape factors on bird communities vary by species and functional group.  Landscape Ecology 30: 287-299.     (pdf)

Lawrence, D. J., B. Stewart-Koster, J. D. Olden, A. S. Ruesch, C. E. Torgersen, J. J. Lawler, D. P. Butcher, J. K. Crown.  2014.  The interactive effects of climate change, riparian management, and a non-native predator on stream-rearing salmon.  Ecological Applications 24: 895-912.     (pdf)


Lawler, J. J., D. Lewis, E. Nelson, A. J. Plantinga, S. Polasky, J. C. Withey, D. P. Helmers, S. Martinuzzi, D. Pennington, V. C. Radeloff.  2014. Projected land-use change impacts on ecosystem services in the U.S.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 111: 7492-7497.     (pdf)


Schumaker, N. H., A. Brookes, J. R. Dunk, B. Woodbridge, J. A. Heinrichs, J. J. Lawler, C. Carroll, D. LaPlante.  2014.  Mapping sources, sinks, and connectivity using a simulation model of northern spotted owls.  Landscape Ecology 29: 579-592.     (pdf)


Wilsey, C. B., J. J. Lawler, D. Cimprich, and N. H. Schumaker.  2014.  Dependence of the endangered black-capped vireo on sustained cowbird management.  Conservation Biology 28: 561-571.     (pdf)

Ibáñez, I., J. M. Diez, L. P. Miller, J. D. Olden, C. J. B. Sorte, D. M. Blumenthal, B. A. Bradley, C. M. D’Antonio, J. S. Dukes, R. Early, E. D. Grosholz, and J. J. Lawler.  2014.  Integrated assessment of biological invasions.  Ecological Applications 24: 25-37.     (pdf)

Lawler. J. J., A. Ruesch, J. D. Olden, B. H. McRae.  2013.  Projected climate-driven faunal movement routes.  Ecology Letters 16: 1014-1022.     (pdf)


Nuñez, T. A., J. J. Lawler, B. H. McRae, D. J. Pierce, M. B. Krosby, D. M. Kavanagh, P. H. Sigleton, and J. J. Tewksbury.  2013.  Connectivity planning to address climate change.  Conservation Biology 27: 407-416.     (pdf)

Cross, M. S., J. A. Hilty, G. M. Tabor, J. J. Lawler, L. J. Graumlich, J. Berger.  2012.  From connect-the-dots to dynamic networks: Maintaining and restoring connectivity as a strategy to address climate change impacts on wildlife.  In: J. Brodie, E. Post, D. Doak, Eds. Conserving wildlife populations in a changing climate.  Chicago University Press.     (pdf)

Lawler, J. J., H. D. Safford, and E. H. Girvetz.  2012.  Martens and fishers in a changing climate.  In: K. B. Aubry, Eds.  Biology and Conservation of Martens, Sables, and Fishers: a New Synthesis.  Cornell University Press.     (pdf)


Ruesch, A. S., C. E. Torgersen, J. J. Lawler, J. D. Olden, E. E. Peterson, C. J. Volk, D. J. Lawrence.  2012.  Projected climate-induced habitat loss for salmonids in the John Day River network, Oregon, USA.  Conservation Biology 26: 873-882.     (pdf)


Withey, J. C., J. J. Lawler, S. Polasky, A. J. Plantinga, E. J. Nelson, P. Kareiva, C. B. Wilsey, C. A. Schloss, T. Nogeire, A. Ruesch, J. Ramos Jr., and W. Reid.  2012.  Maximizing return on conservation investment in the conterminous U.S.  Ecology Letters 15: 1249-1256.     (pdf)

Schloss, C. A., T. A. Nuñez, and J. J. Lawler.  2012.  Dispersal will limit ability of mammals to track climate change in the Western Hemisphere.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 109: 8606-8611.     (pdf)


Krosby, M., J. Hoffman, J. J. Lawler, and B. H. McRae.  2012.  Integrating climate change into conservation planning in Washington State, and the Pacific Northwest. In: C. C. Chester, J. A. Hilty, and M. S. Cross, Eds. Climate and Conservation: Landscape and Seascape Science, Planning, and Action.  Island Press.

Trombulak, S. C., R. F. Baldwin, J. J. Lawler, J. Cymerman-Hepinstall, and M. A. Anderson. 2012. Landscape-scale conservation planning for climate change in the Northern Appalachian/Acadian ecoregion.  In: C. C. Chester, J. A. Hilty, and M. S. Cross, Eds. Climate and Conservation: Landscape and Seascape Science, Planning, and Action.  Island Press


Radeloff, V. C., E. Nelson, A. J. Plantinga, D. J. Lewis, D. Helmers, J. J. Lawler, J. C. Withey, F. Beaudry, S. Martinuzzi, V. Butsic, E. Lonsdorf, D. White, and S. Polasky.  2012.  Economic-based projections of future land use in the conterminous U.S. under alternative economic policy scenarios Ecological Applications 22: 1036-1049.     (pdf)


Wilsey, C., J. J. Lawler, and D. Cimprich.  2012. Performance of habitat suitability models for the endangered black-capped vireo built with remotely-sensed data. Remote Sensing of Environment 119: 35-42.     (pdf)

Schloss, C. A., J. J. Lawler, E. R. Larson, H. L. Papendick M. J. Case, D. M. Evans, J. H. DeLap, J.G.R. Langdon, S. A. Hall, and B. H. McRae.  2011.  Systematic conservation planning in the face of climate change: bet-hedging on the Columbia Plateau. PLoS ONE 6: e28788.     (pdf)


Kostyack, J., J. J. Lawler, D. D. Goble, J. D. Olden, and J. M. Scott.  2011.  Beyond reserves and corridors: policy solutions to facilitate the movement of plants and animals in a changing climate.  BioScience 61: 713-719.     (pdf)


Lawler, J. J.  2011.  News and Views: Conservation at any cost. Nature Climate Change 1: 350-351.     (pdf)     


Lawler, J. J., E. Nelson, M. Conte, S. L. Shafer, D. Ennaanay, and G. Mendoza.  2011.  Modeling the impacts of climate change on ecosystem services.  In: P. M. Kareiva, T. H. Ricketts, G. C. Daily, H. Tallis, and S. Polasky, Eds.  The Theory and Practice of Ecosystem Service Valuation. Oxford University Press.


Lawler, J. J., and J. D. Olden.  2011.  Reframing the debate over assisted colonization.  Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 9: 569-574.     (pdf)


Olden, J. D., M. J. Kennard, J. J.  Lawler, N. L. Poff.  2011. Challenges and opportunities in implementing managed relocation for conservation of freshwater species.  Conservation Biology 25: 40-47.     (pdf)


Lawler, J. J., Y.F. Wiersma, and F. Huettmann.  2011.  Designing predictive models for increased utility: using species distribution models for conservation planning and ecological forecasting. In: Drew, A., Y. F. Wiersma, and F. Huettmann, Editors. Predictive Modeling in Landscape Ecology. Springer Press.

Lawler, J. J., J. A. Hepinstall-Cymerman.  2010.  Conservation planning in a changing climate: assessing the impacts of potential range shifts on a reserve network. In: R. Baldwin and S. C. Trombulak, Eds. Multi-scale Conservation Planning.  Springer-Verlag.    

Lawler, J. J., S. L. Shafer, B. A. Bancroft, and A. R. Blaustein.  2010.  Projected climate impacts for the amphibians of the western hemisphere.  Conservation Biology 24: 38-50.     (pdf)


Girvetz, E., C. Zganjar, G. T. Raber, E. P. Maurer, P. Kareiva, and J. J. Lawler.  2009.  Applied climate-change analysis: the Climate Wizard tool.  PLoS ONE 4(12): e8320. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0008320.     (pdf)

Lawler, J. J.  2009.  Climate change adaptation strategies for resource management and conservation planning.  Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1162: 79-98.     (pdf)


Lawler, J. J., S. L. Shafer, D. White, P. Kareiva, E. P. Maurer, A. R. Blaustein, and P. J. Bartlein.  2009.  Projected climate-induced faunal change in the western hemisphere. Ecology 90: 588-597.     (pdf)


Lawler, J. J., and D. White.  2008.  Selecting surrogate species for conservation planning.  Animal Conservation 11: 270-280.     (pdf)


Nelson, E., S. Polasky, D. J. Lewis, A. J. Plantinga, E. Lonsdorf, D. White, D. Bael, and J. J. Lawler.  2008.  Efficiency of incentives to produce ecosystem services.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 105: 9471-9476.     (pdf)


Cutler, D. R., T. C. Edwards, Jr., K. H. Beard, A. Cutler, K. T. Hess, J. Gibson, and J. J. Lawler. 2007. Random forests for classification in ecology.  Ecology 88: 2783-2792.     (pdf)

Lawler, J. J., D. White, R. P. Neilson, and A. R. Blaustein.  2006.  Predicting climate-induced range shifts: model differences and model reliability.  Global Change Biology 12: 1568-1584.     (pdf)


Lawler, J. J., and T. C. Edwards Jr.  2006.  A variance-decomposition approach to investigating multiscale habitat associations. Condor 108: 47-58.     (pdf)


Battin, J. and Lawler, J. J.  2006.  Cross-scale correlations and the design of avian habitat-selection

studies.  Condor 108: 59-70.     (pdf)


Lawler, J. J., J. Rubin, B. J. Cosby, S. J. Norton, J. S. Kahl, and I. J. Fernandez.  2005.  Predicting recovery from acid deposition: applying a modified TAF (Tracking Analysis Framework) model to Maine (USA) high elevation lakes. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 165: 383-399.     (pdf)


Lawler, J. J., and R. J. O’Connor.  2004.  How well do consistently monitored Breeding Bird Survey routes represent the environments of the conterminous United States? Condor 106: 801-814.     (pdf)


Lawler, J. J., R. J. O’Connor, C. T. Hunsaker, K. B. Jones, T. R. Loveland, and D. White.  2004.  The effects of habitat resolution on models of avian diversity and distributions: a comparison of two land-cover classifications.  Landscape Ecology 19: 515-530.     (pdf)


Lawler, J. J., and N. H. Schumaker.  2004.  Evaluating habitat as a surrogate for population viability using a spatially explicit population model.  Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 94: 85-100.     (pdf)


Lawler, J. J., D. White, and L. L. Master.  2003.  Integrating representation and vulnerability: twoapproaches for identifying areas for conserving species diversity.  Ecological Applications 13: 1762-1772.     (pdf)


Lawler, J. J., D. White, J. C. Sifneos, and L. L. Master.  2003.  Rare species and the use of indicator groups for conservation planning.  Conservation Biology 17: 875-882.     (pdf)


Lawler, J. J., and T. C. Edwards, Jr.  2002.  Landscape patterns as habitat predictors: building and testing models for cavity-nesting birds in the Uinta Mountains of Utah, U.S.A.  Landscape Ecology17: 233-245.     (pdf)


Lawler, J. J., and T. C. Edwards Jr.  2002.  Composition of cavity-nesting bird communities in montane aspen woodland fragments: the roles of landscape context and forest structure.  Condor 104: 890-896.     (pdf)

Edwards, T. C., G. G. Moisen, T. S. Frescino, and J. J. Lawler. 2002. Modelling multiple ecological scales to link landscape theory to wildlife conservation. Pages 153-172 in: J. A. Bissonette and I. Storch, Editors. Landscape ecology and resource management: making the linkages, Island Press, Covelo, California.     (pdf)


Wheelwright, N. T., J. J. Lawler, and J. H. Wienstein.  1997.  Nest-site selection in Savannah sparrows: using gulls as scarecrows?  Animal Behaviour 53: 197-208.     (pdf)

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